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What do I need to know about spindle motor?

Home > What do I need to know about spindle motor?

What do I need to know about spindle motor?

2022-12-15 17:11:11

In a modern society with rapid technological progress, spindle motors have become very popular throughout the country and the world, thanks to their meticulous processing, speed, and high processing quality, which is not possible with other ordinary motors.

What is a spindle motor?

The spindle motor is also called a high-speed motor, which refers to an AC motor with a speed of more than 10,000 rpm. Mainly used in wood, aluminum, stone, hardware, glass, PVC, and other industries. Spindle motors have the advantages of high speed, small size, lightweight, less consumables, low noise, and low vibration, and are increasingly valued and applied by related industries.

How does a spindle motor work?

The windings of a high-speed electric spindle motor are 120° out of phase. When energized, the three-phase windings each form a sinusoidal alternating magnetic field. The magnetic field rotates at a constant speed in a certain direction and the speed of the magnetic field is the synchronous speed of the motor spindle. The synchronous speed of an asynchronous motor is determined by the frequency of the current input to the motor stator winding and the number of pole pairs in the motor stator. The electric spindle obtains its various speeds by varying the frequency of the current input to the motor stator winding and the excitation voltage. As the direction of the rotating magnetic field of the motor depends on the phase sequence of the three-phase alternating current input to the stator, changing the phase sequence of the input current to the electric spindle can change the direction of rotation of the spindle.

Types of spindle motors

Spindle motors are classified in various ways, and different classification methods will divide them into different types. Two classification methods are mainly introduced here, cooling method and tool changing method. Spindle motors can be divided into two types: cooling spindle motors and water-cooling spindle motors according to different cooling methods. According to the different ways of tool change, it can be divided into manual tool change spindle motor and automatic tool change spindle motor.

What are the characteristics of these types of spindle motors?

  1. The water-cooled motor uses water circulation to cool the heat generated by the high-speed rotation of the spindle. After cooling by water circulation, the temperature of the spindle generally does not exceed 40 degrees. However, the water-cooled spindle motor should pay attention to maintenance and change the water frequently. In winter, the outdoor temperature is too low and it needs to be drained to prevent freezing.
  2. The air-cooled spindle adopts a fan to dissipate heat, and the heat dissipation effect is not as good as that of water-cooled. Among them, the water-cooled spindle is generally round, while the air-cooled spindle is mostly square, and rarely round. The air-cooled motor does not need to be equipped with a water pump or a cooler and a water pipe, which is more convenient to use. However, since it requires a fan to rotate to dissipate heat, it will generate a lot of noise.
  3. The automatic tool change spindle is equipped with an automatic tool loosening system, which is convenient and quick to replace the props. The double-layer airtight structure also greatly improves the dustproof performance of the machine.
  4. The spindle motor for manual tool change is simple in structure and economical, but it is usually only suitable for engraving machines that do not require frequent tool changes.


The above is the introduction of some knowledge about the spindle motor. I hope that after reading this article, it can help you have a simple understanding of the spindle motor. Other knowledge about the spindle motor will be added in later articles, such as how to choose a suitable spindle motor, the principle and technology of spindle motor design, etc. If you are interested in spindle motors, welcome to follow us, we will continue to provide you with information on spindle motors.

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