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How do servo motors work?

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How do servo motors work?

2023-05-30 17:21:24

A servo motor is a type of electric motor that is commonly used in control systems to provide precise control of the angular or linear position, velocity, and acceleration of a device. This is achieved by using feedback signals from a sensor, such as a potentiometer or encoder, to compare the actual position of the device with the desired position, and then adjusting the electric current supplied to the motor to drive the device to the desired position.

The basic working principle of a servo motor is based on the interaction between the rotor and the stator. The rotor is the rotating part of the motor, which is typically a permanent magnet that is attached to the shaft of the motor. The stator is the stationary part of the motor, which consists of a series of windings or coils that are arranged in a specific pattern and are connected to the power source.

When an electric current is supplied to the stator windings, it creates a magnetic field that interacts with the magnetic field of the rotor. This interaction causes the rotor to rotate, producing mechanical motion. By changing the direction and intensity of the electric current supplied to the stator windings, the direction and speed of the rotor can be controlled.

In order to provide precise control of the angular or linear position of the device, a servo motor is typically equipped with a feedback system that uses a sensor to measure the actual position of the device and compare it to the desired position. This feedback signal is then used to adjust the electric current supplied to the stator windings in order to drive the rotor to the desired position.

For example, if the desired position of the device is to the left of its current position, the feedback system will send a signal to the servo motor to increase the electric current supplied to the stator windings. This will cause the magnetic field of the stator to increase, which will interact with the magnetic field of the rotor and drive the rotor to the left, moving the device to the desired position.

Once the device reaches the desired position, the feedback system will send a signal to the servo motor to decrease the electric current supplied to the stator windings, which will cause the rotor to slow down and stop at the desired position. This feedback loop continues as long as the servo motor is in operation, allowing for precise control of the angular or linear position of the device.

In summary, a servo motor works by using the interaction between the rotor and stator to produce mechanical motion, and by using a feedback system to compare the actual position of the device with the desired position and adjust the electric current supplied to the stator windings to drive the rotor to the desired position. This allows for precise control of the angular or linear position, velocity, and acceleration of the device.

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